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The Role of Management Information Systems in Planning supervision and Decision Making Process in Private Sector Cooperates at Kuwait
Introduction
Information systems play an increasingly more important role in organizations, especially those in the banking sector in this world characterized by rapid changes, high competitiveness and environmental disturbances and fluctuations. In formation system comprises nowadays an integrated concept embedding several components in its framework; including software and hardware, computer devices and programs, different types of software technologies, personnel, either experts or workers, procedures and database, in addition to different types of data.
This combination of components gives a meaningful and true picture for the information system operating within any given organization. In business originations, information systems assume two important roles:
1- Providing decision makers in the different organizational departments and bodies with high quality and adequate information to enable them make effective decisions.
2- Providing both daily routine and periodical reports needed for business operation.
Financial departments systems work on combining between personnel, technology and organizational operations and techniques to develop the use of information technologies, thus; facilitating organizational performance. They also serve a second purpose; and that is facilitating the process of obtaining information.
The responsibilities of information systems department is considered incomplete if an adequate technological infrastructure in unavailable. This technological infrastructure includes material, human, advanced software and computer programs, well trained and qualified personnel, and all these join together to capitalize these infrastructures, and consequently, increasing the functions assumed by information systems. Considering the fact that information systems contribute in promoting and improving organizational performance, performance efficiency thus has positive effects on organizational performance as a whole.
Management information systems is a set of computerized systems designed to serve mangers in any given organization. They are merely systems used to issue two types of reports for stakeholders, and these are periodical reports and special reports.
The main aim of information systems is to provide the facility with the most benefits provided by the use of computers and support systems concerning providing, managing, and suing information in practical operations via the analysis of both information and data available in the organization, institution or public facility. All of these organizations benefit from these information by analyzing data available and making use of this analysis to make feasible and supported decisions able to reach the maximum interest of all stakeholders ( Al- Sharabi, Management Information systems, 2008).
The true productive aspect of information systems is to provide different management levels in any given organization with all needed information to enable personnel in these management levels make the most appropriate decisions. Thus, information systems is a means to provide the needed information in the right time for all involved in the decision making process, to make sure that such information is available accurately for all responsible for the decision making at the organizational different levels. This is achieved either by the use of computers or even manually able to provide accurate information with high quality.
In general, information systems used in the facility to support different operations at the different management levels can be divided into four major categories:
First: Information Processing Systems
These are automatic processing systems for basic routine processes to support different operating systems in the facility. The most significant tasks performed by these systems are data processing and preparing and issuing reports. Some of the operations processing systems include:
- Personnel affaires system.
- Financial affaires system.
- Warehouses and storage affaires system.
Second: Management Information Systems
These are information techniques systems comprising a set of systematic processes providing managers and different management levels with all necessary information to help them in business operations, decision making in the organization. Some examples of these systems include:
- Marketing information systems.
- Financing information systems.
- Senior management information systems.
Third: Decision making support systems
These are automatic systems for information to support the decision making process in the organization and most commonly used in the following processes
- Planning and setting plans.
- Alternatives analysis.
- Selecting the best alternatives for the use of available organizational resources.
Fourth: Office Information Systems
These are office information systems designated to improve secretary works, managers and personnel in the organization by adjusting the structures of the offices' activities. These systems use modern technologies to facilitate the following processes: ( Al- Sharabi, Management Information systems, 2008).
- Preparation information.
- Storing and retrieving information.
- Communicating information.
Strategic role of management information systems (MIS)
The strategic role of information management systems is evident by its substantial effects in the following main activities:
- The participation in forming the organizational strategic vision by adding components of clarity, simplicity, depth and thoroughness to these characteristics.
- Supporting the formation of the organizational message by specifying and determining the different types of substantial business activities, providing information about the targeted markets and analyzing the strategic competitive advantage.
- Formulating the organizational strategic goals by comparing strengths and weaknesses in the organization with the current and future threats in the external environment.
- Providing high quality information for contrasting between the possible alternatives available and then selecting the most appropriate business strategy for the organization.
- Management information systems work on achieving strategic competitive advantage as they provide high quality information about the main competitors in the market ( Ghaleb, analyzing and Designing information systems, 2000).

Problem of the study
Despite the significant role played by the information systems as they are considered an integral and important part to achieve the organizational success, and despite the role played by information systems in senior management decision making, we find lack of awareness for the standards used to measure the performance of information systems departments. The current study will focus on the following:
- Identifying the relationship between the effect of information systems and organizational performance for profitability and market share measures.
- Measuring and assessing the effect of information systems in private sectors cooperates at Kuwait.

Importance of the study
The importance of the study stems from the fact that it attempts to identify the relationship between the effect of information systems and organizational performance for private sector companies at Kuwait. Information explosion is the main driver for the success of business in the different sectors. Therefore, the current study has a special significance as it addresses two major and vital aspects; information systems departments and banking organizations' performance, which play a vital role in the Kuwait economy.

Objectives of the study
The objectives of the current study may be stated in the following points:
- Clarifying the role of information systems in private sector cooperates at Kuwait.
- Reviewing and examining the most significant related literature addressing the problem examined in the context of the current study, and then introducing the most significant results reported in the previous literature.




Study design
The population of the study will consist of all private sector cooperates at Kuwait. The targeted group in the current study are information systems departments mangers and working staff.

Data collection resources
1-Primary resources:
The primary resource for the data collection process will be a questionnaire developed by the researcher to collect the needed data for the measurement of the study variables.
2-Secondary resources
To present the theoretical framework of the current study, related books, articles, studies, periodicals and any other type of publications in addition to Internet websites were reviewed.








Previous literature
Al – Ajlouni (1998) conducted a study entitled" Assessing Management Information Systems in some Jordanian Private and Public Sectors Selected Cooperates". The main objective of the current study was identify the status of the management information systems and to identify their operations structure in a way to contribute in providing information for decision makers at the different management levels. A second objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of management information systems and their ability to serve decision makers. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher developed a questionnaire. Results of the study indicated:
1- Designing a special data base are compatible with the needs of senior management needs compared to other management levels.
2- The effectiveness of management information systems increases at Kuwait cooperates as long as the outcomes of management information systems were used in decision making process.
3- The operating management levels are the most significant users of the management information systems.
4- Management information systems at Kuwait cooperates is rigorous, and can't address the increases in work sizes.
As for the Arab Bank, the following conclusions were presented:
1-Management information systems used in the Arab Bank was highly effective and was widely used by decision makers in the bank.
2- Information provided by management information systems was highly detailed, not brief.
3- the management information system in the Arab Bank was very effective in addressing the different increases in work size.
Bader ( 2003; cited in Al Tubiashat, 2004) conducted a study entitled " The role of Information Systems in Achieving Competitive Advantage in Kuwait Medical Manufacturing Sector". The objective of the study was to identify the availability level of organizational and technological requirements for information in the sector examined in the context of this study. A second objective was to identify use levels of information systems in achieving the competitive advantage. The study used a questionnaire as a primary data collection resource. The most significant results of the study were:
1-Information systems contributed in the achievement of competitive advantage for medical manufacturing cooperates as they had a significant effects on the variables involved in achieving competitive advantage such as products' quality, and the financial performance in the cooperates participating in the study, dominating the markets and processes efficiency.
2- The relative efficiency for the cooperates varied with respect to capitalizing the cooperates; preparation for information technology in achieving high sales returns from their market share.
Aqeel ( 1996) conducted a study entitled " The Use of Information Systems as a Competitive Tool at Kuwait Banks". The study aimed to examine the use of use of information systems as a competitive tool, identify the status of information technologies and systems. The study used a case study approach, as Kuwaiti Arab Investment Bank was used as the case study as it possessed the needed technological infrastructure.
Khattab ( 2002( conducted a study entitled " Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Accounting Information Systems at Kuwaiti Commercial Banks". The study sought to examine the factors affecting the efficiency and effectiveness accounting information systems at Kuwaiti Commercial Banks. The study worked on identifying the effect of environmental, organizational and behavioral factors for information users( computer software and devices, Management decisions forms) and their effects on the competency and efficiency of these systems. The study used a questionnaire administrated to a sample consisting of all Kuwaiti commercial banks, totaling (9) banks. Results of the study indicated that environmental, organizational and behavioral factors had effects on the competency and efficiency accounting information systems.
Nino ( 2001) conducted a study entitled " The Effect of Information Systems Efficiency on Decision Making Effectiveness at Housing and Financing Bank at Northern Province in Jordan". The study focused on the hypothesis stating "Availability of advanced information systems has positive effects on decision making process, thus promoting the organizational performance and in the quality of services provided by Housing and Financing Bank branches at Northern Province in Jordan. The study examined the efficiency level of information systems and their effects in decision making process quality at Housing and Financing Bank branches at Northern Province in Jordan. In this study, decision making process efficiency was the dependent variable while the information systems was the independent variable, and via these two variables, the study focused on identifying the correlation between them. Means, standard deviations, One Way ANOVA and T- test were used to clarify the statistical significance of the correlation between the information systems and the decision making process efficiency. Results of the study indicated a positive significant correlation between the information systems and the decision making process efficiency.
Al Ka'bbi ( 2004) conducted a study entitled " The Role of Accounting Information Systems in Improving the Management Performance of commercial Banks at United Arab Emirates". For data collection, the study used a questionnaire administrated to a sample consisting of financial departments managers, their deputies, heads of planning, supervision and decision making departments at commercial banks operating at United Arab Emirates. The sample of the study included all commercial banks operating in United Arab Emirates, selecting (6) individuals from each bank. The sample of the study totaled (258) respondents, and (200) questionnaires were returned. Results of the study indicated the accounting information systems played a significant positive role in the administrative performance of commercial banks at United Arab Emirates with respect to planning, supervision and decision making.

Foreign studies
Porter (1985) conducted a study entitled "How Information Gives You a Competitive Advantage". The study was cited in Yassin and Ghadour study ( 2003). The study used value chain approach or what is known as cost stream approach. In other words, the investment in advanced information technologies was the cost stream. The study concluded that basic tool for understanding the role played by advanced information systems when contrasting between different alternative was chain value as it represented the activity circles in the form of technological cluster and transforming to information technology systems, thus affecting the competitiveness via its impact on organizational activities.
Change and King (2005) conducted a study entitled " Assessing the Information Systems Departments Performance". The study aimed at developing a measure to be used to assess the performance of information systems departments . The authors used a questionnaire for data collection. Sample fo the study consisted of (346) information systems users selected from (149) organizations. The questionnaire used in the study distributed on three main dimensions; system performance, performance service and information efficiency. Each of these dimensions contained sub- dimensions, leading to the emergence of an instrument measuring (18) non- dimensional factors within the three other measures. The most significant findings of the study were that the instrument used in the study was inadequate to cover all aspects of the information systems department performance, and that the instrument reflects the positive aspects in the correlation between the business operations development and organizational performance, and consequently; the instrument is useful in assessing the information systems performance in general.
Hitt and Jolfsson (1996) conducted a study entitled " Measures Hindering the Effects and Efficiency of Information Systems on Organizational Performance". The study administrated a questionnaire on a sample consisting of (370) organizations . also, the financial reports, documents budgets and expenses dedicated for information systems departments. The results of the study indicated that organizational productivity and high credibility measures were the most significant indices in the assessment of the competency and efficiency for the information systems departments, especially in those organizations producing easy to assess products. Furthermore, customers; satisfaction about the services and products provided by the organization was a significant indicator for the assessment of competency and efficiency for the information systems departments.












References
- Sultan, Ibrahim ( 2002). Management Information Systems: Systems Introduction. Alexandria, University Dar.
- Al- Bakri, Sunia ( 1998). The Effect of Personal Variables in Automated Information Systems Efficiency Arab Experts in Engineering and Management. Paper presented at the 10th conference for training and management development.
- Khattab, Ayyeda' (1979). Assessing Performance Efficiency in Private Sector: a Field Study Wire and Wireless Communication Sectors. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Eian Shams University, Egypt.
- Al Aamri, Farouq ( 1997). Internet Services. Arab Dar for 172.
- Arab Banks League and E- Commerce and Banking and Financing Services via the Internet. Beirut, 2003. p. 17.
- Financing and Banking Studies Journal. Financing and Banking Research Center, Jordan. P.5.
- Radwan, Raafat ( 1999). E- commerce World. Arab Organization for Management Development. Cairo, Egypt, P.15.
- Shaheen, Baha' ( 2000). Globalization and E- commerce. Dar Al Farouq, Cairo, Egypt.
- Al Sharabi, Shaheen (2008). Management Information Systems. Ossama for Publications, Amman; Jordan.
- Arab, Yunis. E- commerce disputes: competency and applicable law and alternative jurisdictional procedures. A paper presented at legal seminar organized by ESCOA and Lebanese Legal Information Association. Beirut, Lebanon.
- Arab, Yunis. E- commerce. Journal of Banks at Jordan, Vol.18, Amman, Jordan.
- Al Souqi, Ehab ( 2001). E- government in Jordan: Application Potentials. Unpublished MA thesis, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
- Sahawneh, Muhanad ( 2002). E- commerce: Jordanian Experience. Royal Scientific Association, Amman, Jordan.
- Sahawneh, Muhanad; Al Hassan, Ibrahim ( 2003). Basis for Implementing E- commerce in Micro and Macro Organizations. Royal Scientific Association, Information Technology Center, Amman, Jordan.
- Al – Sairafi, Mohammad (2005). Management Information Systems. Teeba for Publications.
- Ghaleb, Saad (2000). Analysis and Design of Information Systems. Dar Al Manahij, Amman, Jordan.
- CHAIN PORTER.(1985)Hw information gives you competitive advantag.
- Brynjolfsson EL, Hitt M. Paradox lost? Firm-level evidence on the returns to information systems spending. Manage Sci 1996;42:541– 58.



كلمات البحث

شفط الدهون-منتجع نوفوتيل البحرين-الفنادق المنتجعات في البحرين-حجوزات طيران الامارات طيران ناس-قصص واقعية-واتس اب-سينما البحرين


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